Renal Sympathetic Denervation is a new and investigational catheter-based treatment for patients with refractory hypertension. The concept is that using a catheter that delivers radio frequency energy to the kidney arteries, the nervous system that allows communication between the kidneys and the brain, can be modified. This is called sympathetic modulation and it is thought to result in significant reductions in a patient’s blood pressure. This is currently only available as an investigational technique in the United States but is approved for general use in Europe. A large US clinical trial of this treatment was just completed in May of 2013. Another clinical trial of this therapy, in patients with less refractory hypertension, is expected to begin in the next few months and the University of Florida, Gainesville, is expected to be a participating site.